Metode Budidaya Organik Tanaman Jagung Manis di Tlogomas, Malang

Muhammad - Martajaya, Lily - Agustina, Syekhfani - -

Abstract


Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung manis yang dipupuk berbagai macam pupuk organik pada waktu yang berbeda, mengetahui hasil yang terbaik pada macam dan saat pemberian pupuk organik dan mengetahui residu pupuk organik dan anorganik terhadap ameliorasi kesuburan tanah. Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Tlogomas, Lowokwaru, Malang. Percobaaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan tujuh perlakuan yang diulang empat kali, yaitu GO=Glyricidia sepium 7 tonha-1diberikan seminggu (GO1) dan dua minggu (GO2) sebelum tanam, TO=Tithonia diversifolia 6 tonha-1diberikan seminggu (TO1) dan dua minggu (TO2) sebelum tanam,  KO=Kotoran sapi 25 tonha-1diberikan seminggu (KO1) dan dua minggu (KO2) sebelum tanam dan A=pupuk anorganikdengan dosis masing-masing 300 kgha-1 Urea, 150 kg ha-1 SP-36, dan 50 kg ha-1 KCl. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung manis yang diberi pupuk anorganik tidak berbeda nyata dengan pupuk organik (G. sepium, T. diversifolia, dan kotoran  sapi).  Hasil bobot segar tongkol masing-masing perlakuan adalah TO1 8,5 tonha-1, KO1 8,2 tonha-1, A 8,1 tonha-1, TO2 7,0  tonha-1, KO2 6,8 tonha-1, GO2 6,0 tonha-1 dan GO1 5,5 tonha-1. Pupuk Organik memberikan simpanan terhadap ameliorasi kesuburan tanah yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan pupuk anorganik, sedangkan diantara pupuk organik, G. sepium meskipun hasilnya rendah, tetapi memberikan sumbangan residu pada tanah yang tertinggi.  Selain hasil tongkol segar, nilai ekonomis budidaya jagung manis juga diperoleh dari brangkasan segar sebagai pakan ternak,  hasil tertinggi berturut-turut diperoleh pada perlakuan Tithonia diverisifolia, pupuk kotoran sapi  yang diberikan seminggu sebelum tanam, serta pupuk anorganik masing-masing sebesar 11,4; 11,2; dan 10,0 tonha-1.

 

Kata Kunci: Glyricidia sepium, jagung manis, kotoran sapi, Tithonia diversifolia

 

 

Abstract

The aims of this research are to compare  growth and yield of sweet corn  that is planted at kinds of organic fertilizers wich applied in different times; to obtain the best result at kind of organic fertilizer wich applied in different time, and to know residual to the soil after harvesting from organic and anorganic fertilizer. The research have done at Tlogomas village, Malang, on September until December 2002. The experimental method of Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) comprising of seven treatments and four replication each, those are: Glyricidia sepium 7 tons ha-1applied in  a week (GO1) and two weeks (GO2) before planting, Tithonia diversifolia 6 tons ha-1applied in a week (TO1) and two weeks (TO2) before planting, cow manure 25 tons ha-1applied a week (KO1) and two weeks (KO2) before planting, and inorganic fertilizer (A) as according to recommendation (300 kg ha-1 Urea, 150 kg ha-1 SP-36, and 50 kg ha-1 KCl). The results of the study indicate that there was no difference in growth and  yield of sweet corn between inorganic and organic fertilizer (G. sepium, T. diversifolia, and  cow manure). While each of seven treatments  yielding fresh weight of cobs  as follows, from the highest are TO18.5 Mgha-1,  KO18.2 Mgha-1, inorganic fertilizer 8.1 Mgha-1, TO2 7.0 Mgha-1, KO2 6.8 Mgha-1, GO2 6.0 Mgha-1, and GO1 5.5 Mgha-1.  G. sepium though the corn yield is lower, but have highest value in contribution of residual soil amelioration. Besides yielding fresh cobs, economic value in sweet corn cultivation is obtained from total fresh weight production that can be used as livestock feed. The highest yield as follows T. diversifolia and cow manure which applied week before planting, and from the inorganic fertilizer as  11.4 Mgha-1, 11.2 Mgha-1 and 10.0 Mgha-1 respectively.

 

Key words: cow manure, Glyricidia sepium, sweet corn, Tithonia diversifolia

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